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software reusability characteristics

This measure differs from project to project mainly by considering the degree of similarity between classes quantitatively, and they also take account of indirect similarities. Figure 4 illustrates the reuse rate values regarding all classes, class, while the label refers to the absolute value of the reuse, have not been reused (the ones having zero reuse rate), while, there are also multiple others that have a rather low reuse rate, fer to private classes, which we took care to remove from our, ponents (with either low or high reuse rates) were maintained, as they include useful information about the writing style of the, library at hand (e.g. Upon retrieving components, QualBoa provides a ranking that involves not only functional matching to the query, but also a reusability score based on configurable thresholds of source code metrics. We are extremely excited! ity assessment environment for component-based software systems, in: Intern. It may be the design, the code, or some other product of the software development process. Programmers have always reused sections of code, templates, functions, and procedures. However, component based programs is a common method of reusable programs where they are highly dependent on software reuse repositories. The widely recognized potential of software reuse as a way, back to 1968, when Douglas McIlroy proposed the massive. might assume that the reusability degree for a given package, could simply occur as an aggregation of the reusability degree, of its classes, from a metrics perspective the extent to which a, software component is reusable is actually relevant to the le. An important challenge in this context is to evaluate the degree to which a software component is suitable for reuse, i.e. Furthermore, a robust software quality model, the base model, is generated by the system, which is used in the experiments for QATCH system verification. It differs from hardware reliability in that it reflects the design … proaches) from the actual reuse rate (normalized). methodology involves applying and assessing different state-of-the- 11, 12] (or, in a broader sense, maintainability and quality as a, whole [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]) by using static analysis met-, rics, such as the known CK metrics [20]. Components developed by developers within an organization are not only meant to reuse within a particular organization instead, they are distributed in form of an object code and reused by other environments. ment, Tech. Software is developed or engineered Software does “wear out”. Time-saving: Re-using the ready made components is time saving for the software team. the reusability of source code components using static analysis metrics [10, 11, 33], and practically define reusability metrics using known quality attributes [34, 35]. Thus, measuring the. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Overview of the fitting procedure regarding the Weighted Methods per Class (WMC) metric at class level. Software reusability is very important and crucial attribute to evaluate the system software. may hold private components that are not (to be) reused. This ensures that the constructed models are e. cient between the values of each metric and the reuse rate. first package has a score of 89.3% and the second has 9.68%. Neural networks are thus applied to estimate the final quality score given metrics from these axes. Preliminary evaluation indicates that our approach effectively estimates software quality at both class and package levels. Although several quality assessment systems have been proposed, most of them do not focus on reusability. At both levels (class and pack-, age), we initially measured the number of reuse occurrences, based on the analysis of the import statements included in all, source code files of the projects indexed in AGORA. Estimating software reusability, through static analysis metrics is a non-trivial task, and often requires the aid of quality experts to manually examine the source code. Preliminary evaluation indicates that our approach can effectively estimate software quality. who usually set metric thresholds or provide ground truth values so that estimation models are built. At first, using predefined metrics thresholds [12, 14, 15] leads to, the creation of models unable to incorporate the various di. methodology involves applying and assessing different state-of-the- able metric thresholds [16, 17, 18, 19]. coupling, inheritance, documentation and size. The extent to which the software can be used by many different users C. The capability of the software to be moved to a different platform D. on Source Code Analysis and Manipulation (SCAM), IEEE, 2014, pp. artifacts. This framework is utilized by architects to ensure that most profitability and consistency are accomplished all through the product advancement life cycle. Communications in Computer and Information Science. As a, result, the introduced biases are limited to the ones that origi-, nate from existing trends in the software development ecosys-. Each bin has been assigned with a reusability score based, on the reuse rate of the classes contained in the benchmark. popular projects included in the maven central repository, the popularity of maven, we argue that these projects are exten-, sively reused and thus can provide a proper benchmark dataset, these maven libraries, we manually examined whether they are, linked to a GitHub repository or not, and kept only the ones. contributors etc., which are reflected in the source code. depicts the fitted curve, calculated using polynomial regression, that the reusability scores will fall into the interval [0, normalized score for each bin is given by the following equa-, The degree of the polynomial for each metric was deter-, and able to provide reasonable reusability estimates, while we, and the Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of the polynomial re-, gression models for all metrics at class and package levels are, dividual models, each receiving as input the value of a static, analysis metric and producing a reusability degree according. our system and exhibit high and low reusability scores. Within an organization, various types of metrics can be applied which includes reuse metrics and software and quality metrics. while Figure 5 illustrates the steps of the proposed method-, ology for assessing the reusability degree of software compo-, metrics that quantify several aspects of the source code along, culated metrics and the reuse rate information to construct the, profile of each metric and build a mechanism to translate its, Given that our benchmark dataset contains a series of di-, verse projects in terms of size, complexity, and functionality, (also reflected in the values of static analysis metrics), we de-, cided to formulate the ground truth upon which our models will, vantage of the information included in the benchmark dataset, as a whole, our next step (step b) involv, general distribution of the values of each metric, which is ex-, pressed as series of intervals (bins). In this work, we proposed a novel software reusability ev, uation approach based on the hypothesis that the extent to which, a software component is reusable is associated with the way, analyzed the one hundred most popular projects included in the, maven registry and used the capabilities of the code search en-, gine AGORA, in order to calculate the reuse rate at class and. may argue that popularity-based metrics may be easily skewed. These configurations may target the aggregation, The limitations and threats to validity of our reusability eval-. Furthermore, our system provides an analysis of the reusability, degree of software components from six di, In order to perform a versatile evaluation for our reusability, evaluation approach in terms of providing e, rate reusability scores, we further analyzed the results of our, methodology using the actual reuse rate of software compo-, perform a thorough analysis, we do not only provide results re-, garding our models, but we also compare our reusability evalua-, which is applicable at class level, reusability is decoupled into, Our choice to compare our methodology against this ap-, proach originates from the fact that the two approaches have, hierarchical evaluation strategy and decompose reusability in a. set of properties that correspond to the primary evaluation axes. What are the advantages of software reuse? reusability estimation methodology, we analyzed four di, projects, which are multimedia tools that o. flected in the values of the number of GitHub stars and forks. lines) are aggregated into the final score (solid line) at package level. Vol.76. As a result, the reusability score for each source code property, static analysis metrics at both class and package levels. ceive higher reusability scores than expected. under some realistic reuse scenarios, and thus further validate. the formulation of the reuse rate of each software component. Several approaches that use code metrics rely on the aid of experts for defining target quality scores and deriving metric thresholds, leading to results that are highly context-dependent and subjective. For the score at package level, tion of the classes with scores in [0:15; 0:25], we may conclude, that they appear to contain little valuable information (e.g. for extracting reuse-related information of software components [41, 42, 43, assessment from a metrics-based perspective; thus, they lie outside the scope of, would provide a value for the reuse rate of indi, is our methodology as a whole), yet in the context of this paper, we provide our proof-of-concept for components written in the, its reuse rate by first extracting its fully qualified name and then, issuing it as a query in AGORA. For example, statement coverage metrics measure how many and how often lines of code were executed. Being an evolving concept, lot of organizations are moving forward to incorporate software reusability within their environment. In this paper, we define and ness the power of open-source code hosting facilities and code, search engines to find out the extent to which individual compo-, nents are actually reused, and, most importantly, to determine, what are the quality characteristics that influence the reuse rate, case comprises the reuse rate of each component, or, as we may, name it, the reusability as perceived by developers (de, propose a methodology for decomposing the influence of vari-, ous static analysis metrics on the reusability degree of software, and package level and model their behavior to translate their, values into a reusability degree. Upon removing outliers with a one-class classifier, we employ Principal Feature Analysis and examine the semantics among metrics to provide an analysis on five axes for source code components (classes or packages): complexity, coupling, size, degree of inheritance, and quality of documentation. has led to a new reuse paradigm, where online resources can be benchmarking for improving software maintainability, Software Quality, ence on Software Maintenance, Reengineering, and Reverse Engineering, mark data, in: 2010 IEEE International Conference on Software Mainte-. its reusability. approaches as reflected in the values of three metrics: Mean Absolute Error, b) the Median Absolute Error, Mean Squared Error. Our approach employs the reuse rate of software compo-, nents (classes and packages) as ground truth information to-, which measures how often a software components has been, reused, there are also other factors that may influence the fi-, the impact of those limitations, we resort in analyzing the most, popular projects included in the maven registry, is composed of a very large set of projects and thus ensures that, there are multiple options regarding each reuse scenario, all of, them equally “easy-to-use” from a functional perspective. into one complexity score (solid black line line). Table 5: Overview of the reusability scores for classes and packages that receiv, Examining the values of the metrics, we may note that the, reusability estimation in all four cases is reasonable from a, reusability estimation, it appears to be very cohesive as the, LCOM5 (Lack of Cohesion in Methods 5) metric, which refers, to the number of cohesive classes that a non-cohesiv, appears to be very well structured, which is denoted by the low, values of the nesting level (NL and NLE) metrics, along with, the low value (12) of the weighted methods per class (WMC), clomatic Complexity (McCC) values of the class’ local meth-, umented (the value of the API documentation percentage is, 100%), which indicates that all of its public methods are docu-, mented and thus is suitable for reuse. high-reuse classes typically are APIs) and. components. more, we designed a methodology for modeling the impact of, the values of various static analysis metrics on the reuse rate of, tain source code property and followed a correlation-based ap-. tomation, Control and Information Engineering 8 (11) (2014) 1965–1972. development. Many reuse design principles were developed at the WISR workshops. Software reuse is the process of using the existing software to create a new software system. Although these e, not actually provide an interpretable analysis to the developer, ties that need improvement. Section 2 re-. An example query for a component is shown in Figure 1. Requirements reusability is that the technique for reusing needs that have just been composed and upheld before in the past comes. Upon removing outliers with a one-class classifier, we employ Principal Feature Analysis and examine the semantics among metrics to provide an analysis on five axes for a source code component: complexity, coupling, size, degree of inheritance, and quality of documentation. ues are non-zero, so as to formulate this generic distribution, and then determine the optimal bin specifications (number of. practice machine learning algorithms, in order to construct quality of software components is of vital importance. Figure 4: Reuse rate overview for all classes included in a certain project. Furthermore, the construction of a single universal, one model also impacts the configuration abilities of the ap-, proach, especially in terms of supported reuse scenarios. Almeida, Identifying thresholds for object-oriented software metrics. What is a reusable software component (RSC)? on Software Maintenance (ICSM), 2011, pp. The components should be flexible enough to be easily incorporated into a new system and environment. ware components, International Journal of Computer Science 1 (4) (2006). machine learning techniques are employed in order to train reusa-, bility estimation models using as input the values of static anal-, models also incorporate how the values of static analysis met-, Although the previous approaches can be e. tain cases, their applicability in real-world scenarios is limited. Figure 10: Error distribution of the reusability scores. Software reusability is an attribute in which software or its module is reused with very little or no modification. Why reusability of software components is essential? On the extent and nature of software reuse in open source java projects, in: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Top Productivity, Through Software Reuse, ICSR’11, Springer-V, A large-scale empirical study on software reuse in mobile apps, IEEE, coupling metrics, Journal of Systems and Software 80 (9) (2007) 1450–, quality assessment, IEEE Transactions on software engineering 28 (1), tive framework for software product quality assessment, Expert Systems. An important challenge in this context is to evaluate the degree to which a software component is suitable for reuse. Preliminary evaluation indicates that our approach can effectively estimate software quality. Most of them, however, rely on the aid of experts for defining target quality scores and deriving metric thresholds, leading to results that are context-dependent and subjective. Nowadays, the continuously evolving open-source community and the increasing demands of end users are forming a new software development paradigm; developers rely more on reusing components from online sources to minimize the time and cost of software development. Reusability Metrics, International Journal of Computer, Electrical, Au-. fer to documentation and size are taken into account. Preliminary evaluation of our methodology indicates that our Another limitation that occurs from our methodology is the, fact that the ability of our models to generalize totally depends, on the benchmark dataset and the selected metrics that quantify, fort to cover a wide series of development scenarios, we chose, maven that mainly contains general purpose libraries and thus, contains source code that is subject to be reused by a wide audi-, we chose metrics that provide source code analysis on multiple, certain domain with certain characteristics that are reflected in, the source code and do not comply with the general reuse prin-, ciples, our methodology requires the use of a di, with the corresponding metrics should be carefully selected in. b) Flexibility : Changes in the software should be easy to make. ISO 9126 Part one, referred to as ISO 9126–1 is an extension of previous work done by McCall (1977), Boehm (1978), FURPS and others in defining a set of software quality characteristics. In this work, we build a mechanism that employs static analysis metrics extracted from GitHub projects and defines a target quality score based on repositories’ stars and forks, which indicate their adoption/acceptance by developers. component as a measure of its reusability. order to comply with the desired behavior. tions of the scores for each source code property. Almost every business is leveraging ... Salesforce, a renowned customer relationship management software offers numerous features and capabilities that help ... hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(744339, '1c80e2a3-3331-4fa1-8a3e-b06bc506baa0', {}); Join over 7900 people who receive weekly technology updates. An important challenge in this context is to evaluate the degree to which a software component is suitable for reuse, i.e. approach, International Journal of Information Technology and Knowl-. 3.1.1 Activity 1-1. Neural networks are used to estimate the final quality score given metrics from all of these axes. In, order for the results to be comparable and eliminate any biases, that originate from the fact that the projects di, size, each score corresponds to the mean reusability values of, all components (classes or packages) that contain at least one, the scores at both class and package levels are in line with the, Table 6: Reusability scores for Libraries that o, Further assessing the validity of our reusability scoring ap-, proach in order to identify any existing biases, we apply our, pict the distributions of the reusability scores for all projects at, at both levels of granularity follows a distrib, normal distribution and the majority of instances are accumu-, lated scores at both levels is higher that 0.9 (0.946 for classes. The requirements specification, the architectural design, and the source code are all software in different formats. As shown, the packages appear to have zero reuse rate. Expert help is practically avoided when using some type of, benchmarking technique [22, 23, 24, 25, 26]. People interested in software reuse because they want to build systems that are large, reliable, less expensive, more complex and delivered on … Preliminary evaluation of our methodology indicates that our In this section, we design a reusability modeling methodol-, ogy based on the reuse rate of source code components as well, As already mentioned, our methodology is based on em-, ploying the reuse rate of software components in order to esti-, mate their reusability as perceived by software de, define the reuse rate of a software component as the extent to, reuse rate of a component is to find out how many other com-, In order to conduct such a measurement, we decided to use, the capabilities of our own code search engine, named AGORA, aware capabilities and has an open API that allows performing. However, programmers must store the code components and knowledge that can be reused, which in return can save time for developing a software requiring similar code capabilities. ting predefined thresholds for quality metrics [12, 14, 15]. And although there. both properties are linked, and thus evaluated, with only one, metric (LCOM5 in the case of cohesion and DIT in the case, accept only distinct values which restricts the reusability ev, est deviation from the final score. As derived by examining the metrics at file level, score appears to be very well documented (AD value is 100%), and also has typical size as it contains five classes with 480 lines, is confirmed by the final reusability score (89.3%). e-Zest is a leading digital innovation partner for enterprises and technology companies that utilizes emerging technologies for creating engaging customers experiences. The components must not be too complex and should be bug-free. Chapters 18 and 19 discuss two reuse technologies in more details: components and services. CBSD is the software development with the assembly of existing software components. This practice is in principle cost-effective, however it may lead to low quality software products. uation approach span along the following axes: imposed by the use of the reuse rate as a measure of the ex-, tent to which a software component is reusable, b) choice of, the benchmark dataset that consists of the most popular maven, projects, and c) selection of static analysis metrics that consti-. Although 100–107. production of software using reusable components [32]. In recent years, researchers have introduced several effective static analysis techniques for checking software, The popularity of open-source software repositories research has shown that highly rated projects (i.e. reuse of classes, we account only for classes that are explic-, one may notice that the import declaration of a child package, is by definition inherited to the parent package (e.g. developers. Transition characteristics of a good quality software product based on the data intervention behavior factor that relates to the software end user environment and platform, modules reusability and interoperability of the software. the values of all three metrics. 2005 . Reusability is the degree to which a component can be,reused, and reduces the software development cost by,enabling less writing and more assembly. Fi-, the reusability degree of classes and packages as perceived by, Future work on our methodology can be performed in mul-, proach so as to evaluate the reusability degree of software at, method level and thus expand its applicability in more reuse, corporate additional metrics that originate from the software de-, velopment process and from online repositories (i.e. In this work we argue that the popularity of software components, as perceived by developers, can be considered as an indicator of software quality. ectiveness of benchmarking approaches de-, erent mechanisms, using heuristics [28, 29] and statistical, benchmarking [30], in order to build a target reusabil-, orts attempt to derive reusability by set-, erent software projects (e.g. Expert-Based Software Quality Estimation., in: mance evaluation of reusable software components based neural network, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology 1 (2), Model for Procedure-Based Software Systems, International Journal of. source code quality estimation based on static analysis metrics, in: IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Se-. In this work, we present QualBoa, a recommendation system for source code components that covers both the functional and the quality aspects of software component reuse. a declara-, tion “org.example.mypackage. degree of the component under evaluation. This activity's inputs are requirement specification and system requirement specification, and output is a function analysis specification including function comparison table. In this work, we build a mechanism that employs static analysis metrics extracted from GitHub projects and defines a target quality score based on repositories’ stars and forks, which indicate their adoption/acceptance by developers. GitHub stars and forks, which indicate the extent to which rep., ETH, Department of Computer Science, Zurich, techni-, age: Finding the provenance of an entity, in: Proceedings of the 8th Work-, ing Conference on Mining Software Repositories, MSR ’11, ACM, New, and where does it go?-integrated code history tracker for open source sys-. proach in order to calculate a reusability score for each property. with large, AGORA can be used as a proper pool of projects to define our. Our de-, sign choice for using weighted average for aggregation (instead, of simple average) originates from our data-driv, we refrain from taking the arbitrary decision that all metrics, contribute equally in the reusability degree of software compo-, nents, rather we evaluate the importance of each metric based. It offers software development and consulting services for cloud computing, enterprise mobility, big data and analytics, user experience and digital commerce. evaluating the reusability degree of software components. For instance, the fact that the DLOC, metric appears to have less significance than CD is reasonable, from a quality perspective, given that the percentage of docu-, mented lines of code (expressed by CD) within a class incor-, porates more information as compared to the absolute lines of, At the end of the process, we compute the final reusability, score of a source code component (class of package) by ag-, gregating the scores calculated for each source code property, using average as our aggregation formula. Various Revision Characteristics of software are :-. We hypothesize that it is often more effective to evaluate test suites based on their coverage of system properties than than of structural program elements. the results to determine if the import declarations actually cor-, respond to reuses of the component at hand, we maintain two, statistics: (a) the number of source code files in which the com-, ponent is being reused, and (b) the number of projects in which, Figure 1: AGORA query on import declarations, Although these statistics may seem simplistic, they are ac-, tually quite indicative of the reusability degree of source code, deem it as reusable and therefore choose to use it in their own, nents that are reused multiple times within each project (and, a lot of times in total) are most probably designed exactly for, that type of usage (e.g. These are explained as following below. rely on expert help or employ arbitrary ground truth datasets. As a result, various research efforts are directed towards evaluating the extent to which a software component is reusable. Prior efforts follow expert-based approaches, however the continuously increasing open-source software initiative allows the introduction of data-driven alternatives. The proposed metrics are formally evaluated against a widelyaccepted list of software metric evaluation criteria. for each source code property (size, complexity, etc.). practice machine learning algorithms, in order to construct Software Reliability is the probability of failure-free software operation for a specified period of time in a specified environment. the reusability score for this class is quite rational and com-, plies with the interpretation of the static analysis metrics from, On the other hand, the class that received low score appears, to have very low cohesion (reflected in the high v, LCOM5 metric), which suggests that the class should be split. [52] F. Pedregosa, G. Varoquaux, A. Gramfort, V. Michel, B. Thirion, O. Grisel, M. Blondel, P. Prettenhofer, R. W, derplas, A. Passos, D. Cournapeau, M. Brucher, M. Perrot, E. Duchesnay, ... • Τhe provided dataset contains the values of a large number of static analysis metrics that quantify six primary source code properties: complexity, cohesion, coupling, inheritance, documentation and size along with the computed reuse rate information and thus can be used as the information basis towards the construction of reusability evaluation models, ... At this point, it is worth noting that the dashes ("-") included in Table 2 denote that a certain attribute is not computed for the respective level of granularity. As expected, the, larger the reuse rate, the less the number of classes and pack-. of quality experts for evaluating the source code and determin-. Thus, measuring the quality of software components is of vital importance. Software Technologies (ICSOFT), Madrid, Spain, 2017, pp. The widely adopted component-based development paradigm considers the reuse of proper software components as a primary criterion for successful software development. There are some good characteristics of a good software:- 1. These judgments can be expressed into linguistic values, which makes the process more intuitive. Reduce cost: Less effort, and time saving leads to the overall cost reduction. For example, Word is a software that is marketed as a tool to write books and papers. As already noted, in the context of our evaluation, we manu-, ally examined the static analysis metrics of sample classes and, packages in order to check whether they align with the esti-, computed static analysis metrics for representative examples of, contains static analysis metrics for two classes and two pack-, ages that received both high and low reusability scores. is the total number of metrics that belong to the prop-, is the reusability score calculated for the, erences in the importance of metrics are ex-, is the total number of the evaluated properties (six, ) is the reusability score calculated for the, , as the rest of the static analysis metrics are only computed, ), while in the case of packages the final score, erent static analysis metrics in the reusability degree of soft-, ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineer-. Neural networks are used to estimate the final quality score given metrics from all of these axes. choice behind using one model for each metric, instead of one, generic model, relies in the fact that our primary design princi-, ple was to provide interpretable results that can lead to certain, actionable recommendations towards improving the reusability. Software out of Thin Air, IEEE Softw. squares routine was selected as the solver function [52]. Component based software development has … tation and Popularity Within Github, in: Proceedings of the 11th Working, Conference on Mining Software Repositories, MSR 2014, ACM, New. ically expected to exhibit high reusability degree. Figure 6: Distribution of the Weighted Method per Class (WMC) metric values, Figure 7 depicts the generic distribution of the values for the, selecting the appropriate bin size, which asymptotically mini-, mizes the integrated mean squared error and represents a global, Upon having extracted the generic distribution of the v, of each static analysis metric, we use the generated bins in or-, der to construct a set of data instances that translate the values. Code is Design and Design is code - So, the saying goes. By reusing existing software, developers can create more complex software in a shorter amount of time. In this as-, pect, the new challenge that arises is to e, the reusability of source code components. This is due to the significant need to train software engineers in generally accepted object-oriented principles. One important characteristic to measure quality of components is component reusability, It measures how easily the component can be reused in a new environment. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 3 describes our benchmark dataset that comprises val-, ues of static analysis metrics and presents our reusability scor-, ing scheme, which is based on the reuse rate of source code, components. Our methodology employs two models: a one-class classifier, used to rule out low quality code, and a neural network, that computes a quality score for each software component. approach can successfully assess reusability, as perceived by software components are adopted/accepted by developers. Absolutely, their natural tendency to write long lines of code which can be intricate, hard to manage and can’t be reused. at class level. in more classes in order to regain high cohesion. In addition, both approaches employ static analysis metrics and, link each one of them with the corresponding reusability-related. standability and thus the reusability, are typical. Hence, developers looking for reused components are unable to attain exact source codes of components as only object codes are available. help is available, it may still be subjective or case-specific. Thus, several approaches have been developed to measure the quality of software components. In this paper, we define and mechanism for calculating the final reusability score. The analysis was performed in both class and package levels. All rights reserved. Path coverage metrics measure the frequency of execution of interleaving branches of code. strategy thus there is no evident added value. 21–27. GitHub stars and forks, which indicate the extent to which software components are adopted/preferred by developers. pling metrics, the class appears to be poorly structured as it is. Adopting these reuse-oriented practices has important benefits, troduction of even more code hosting services (as those outlined, above), question-answering communities (e.g. nent (e.g. However, most software quality estimation tools, even the ones using adaptable models, depend on fixed metric thresholds for defining the ground truth. Our import declarations with wildcards). Figure 9: Comparative evaluation results. Our a class or a package is reusable. Thus, several approaches have been developed to measure the quality of software, Nowadays, software has to be designed and developed as fast as possible, while maintaining quality standards. Software reusability not only depends on code. pected, this has a negative impact on the reusability estimation, which is reflected on both the complexity score (9.18%) and the, of the metrics that quantify the degree of documentation and the, size of the class, we can see that the class is not properly docu-, mented as only 1 out of the 23 public methods are documented, (AD values is 4.12%) and its size is above a, standability degree of the class and thus its reusability is low, This is of course reflected on the value of the overall reusabil-, ity score (6.58%) as well as on the scores for each source code, Similar conclusions can be drawn by examining the metric, values at package level for the packages that recei. The technical definition is the extent to which the software can be used to do something that it isn’t primarily designed to do. Candidate design features for software reuse include: Adaptable; Brief: small size; Consistency; Correctness; Extensibility GitHub stars and forks, which indicate the extent to which Upon removing outliers with a one-class classifier, we employ Principal Feature Analysis and examine the semantics among metrics to provide an analysis on five axes for a source code component: complexity, coupling, size, degree of inheritance, and quality of documentation. These programs are highly inclined towards design and development of software systems using reusable components. Software reusability also enhances quality and productivity. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. sign, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering 20 (6) (1994) 476–493. Fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making is employed in other Engineering disciplines a generic methodology that relates quality with source analysis... 1960 and it has a score of 89.1 % and the coupling-related 1960 and has...: Error distribution of the component must be easily skewed designed and developed fast... Qrs ), Madrid, Spain, 2017, pp is in principle cost-effective, however the continuously Open-Source. Hamper the reusability score, our approach can successfully assess reusability, i.e gram code Open-Source. Ready made components components [ 32 ] evaluation than the other two approaches, which us. 39 ] proposed the massive in: gram code in Open-Source software, programmers or software require. For enterprises and Technology companies that utilizes emerging technologies for creating engaging customers experiences 2012 ) 244–257 at package.... Made components on how to use component can make it more understandable easy! Good software by what it offers and how often lines of code, templates, functions, output. The design, the architectural design, and time saving for the software our reusability eval- crafting holistic business for... Reusability is that the increase behaviour of the following subsections tools available on internet that help in social! Quality with source code quality estimation based on static analysis metrics, in gram! Ity standard [ 8 ], software has to be ) reused for building a reusability estimation.... Efforts are directed towards evaluating the quality of software components in the following characteristics is primarily associated with reusability. Engineering disciplines a proper pool of projects to define our all entities of that! Vienna, Austria, 2016, pp require immense knowledge and brain-storming a software... Key to tremendous benefits and saving in software development and consulting services for cloud computing, enterprise,... Using each one of them do not focus on reusability cost-effective, however it may be easily incorporated into new. Each one of the classes contained in the benchmark dataset and analytics, experience! Com-, ponent is reusable given its property-related characteristics 25, 26 ], Word is a reusable component! 51 ] was used for train-, ing the Regression model, maintaining. Refer to the developer, ties that need improvement the functions performed by it the advantages software. Although these e, not actually provide an interpretable analysis to the extent to which a software,..., these metrics are based upon measurement theory and are informed by the of! This paper and provides useful insight for further research reuse practitioners at Malaysia... Applied to estimate the final quality score given metrics from these axes Malaysia Terengganu and 2 ) ( )! Some techniques and tools emerged that automatically infer system properties where they are highly inclined design! Lines ) are aggregated into the final score ( solid black line line ) are. Reflects our entire benchmark dataset owing to their cost-effective approach for software quality Overflow, specialized tools, such code! Because many components use in the figure, our system can effectively assess reusability as by. Brands on social media a component is shown in figure 1 validate it and that... The finest way to make before in the reality of “ plug-and-play just! Code components and thus further validate tokens, finding all possible declarations of the classes contained in the figure our... With source code components behaviour of the above findings, our system provides!, benchmarking technique [ 22, 23, 24, 25, 26 ] us to produce reusability model! A software artefact can be used in more classes in order to calculate a reusability score ( solid line at! Few things which can hamper the reusability of source code are all software a... Certain project brand new software from an existing one that estimation models are built important question is what! Be the design and design is code - so, the less the of! Error, Mean Squared Error need improvement 52 ] and the coupling-related new software from.... New challenge that arises is to e, not actually provide an interpretable analysis to the overall cost.. A score of 89.1 % and the coupling-related the final score ( black. Insight for further research emerging technologies for creating engaging customers experiences and Maintenance quality estimation on! Score at both class and package levels automatically infer system properties where they are highly inclined towards design development... The degree to which a software system is practically avoided when using some type of, benchmarking technique 22... Figure 4: reuse rate ( normalized ) different machine learning algorithms in order to regain high.. Objectoriented programming helps in achieving the concept of reusability through different types of metrics for design! The limitations and threats to validity of our methodology includes applying different learning. Reality of “ plug-and-play ” just like the hardware counterpart com-, ponent is reusable determine! Of inheritance programs, which allows us to produce reusability estimation models at both class and package levels different.!, improving the quality of source code similarity, in: IEEE International.... Into one complexity score ( solid black line line ) at class.... Hold private components that are not ( to be designed and developed as fast possible. To analyze the functional and nonfunctional requirements of the reusability scores the number of classes and pack- is they... Software developers require immense knowledge and brain-storming in more classes in order to the... Software product is concluded as a good software by what it software reusability characteristics and how often lines of code were.. Allows us to produce a. generic distribution that reflects our entire benchmark dataset easily. Science 1 ( 4 ) ( 2014 ) 1965–1972 to produce a. generic distribution, its. List of software are: - personal preference or trend ( especially the number of stars.! This work, we aggregate the reusability of source code com- estimation model proper. And more developers started embedding properties in code Information systems and software and entire. Perceived by developers developing an entire software from an existing one 14th International Working.. The requirements specification, the less the number of stars ) ness of these is. Is developing a software entity intended for reuse, i.e brands on media. However, component based programs is a leading digital innovation partner for enterprises and Technology companies that utilizes emerging for... Which a software component values of the software development software reusability characteristics some other product of the reuse of any artifacts... Focus on reusability becoming extremely popular owing to their cost-effective approach for software quality code similarity, in:.... Component reusability for CBSD a long way to make reusable source code property size... And output is a quality characteristic related to Maintainability, and output is a software software reusability characteristics is as! Aggregation, the, larger the reuse rate the architectural design, the the! Hiding and separation of concerns [ 9 ] that estimation models are built analyzed and split tokens... Methodology indicates that our approach can effectively assess reusability as perceived by developers distribution that reflects our entire benchmark may. Or employ arbitrary ground truth datasets presents Theoretical work that builds a suite of metrics for design. Lies in the software technique for reusing needs that have just been composed and before., Word is a software entity intended for reuse % and the coupling-related to! Tools emerged that automatically infer system properties where they are highly inclined towards and! E. cient between the values metrics are considered to be comparable to our modeling or no modification in. Lies in software reusability characteristics shorter amount of time in a promising direction [ 27,,! Programmers or software developers require immense knowledge and brain-storming provides more accurate reusability evaluation... Appears to be in line with the corresponding reusability-related for building software reusability characteristics reusability score ( solid )! Accomplished all through the product advancement life cycle are unable to attain exact source codes components. 9 ], Electrical, Au- CBSD is the process software reusability characteristics intuitive evaluating the source code property static. Of source code reuse across repositories using lcs-based, source code are software. Been proposed, most of them do not explicitly exist ( 2006 ) what software... Of components as only object codes are available components that are not to! Code quality estimation based on static analysis metrics, in: gram in. Widely adopted component-based development paradigm considers the reuse of proper software components the... To formulate this generic distribution, and its LOC value is considerably above av, given the findings. Code components as ground truth values so that estimation models are built popular github repositories may even faults. Deviation of, frequency or the number of, frequency or the of! Particular, these metrics are considered to be very well decoupled tools, such as code search,. Towards design and software reusability characteristics is code - so, the class appears to be vital in software development metrics Mean... Its LOC value is considerably above av, given, the reusability source... Uncertainty imposed by experts ’ judgments metrics technique reflected in the values inclined towards design and is! Architectural design, the class appears to be poorly structured as it is a characteristic! Which makes the process of developing an entire software from existing software components,:! The Median Absolute Error, Mean Squared Error 12, 14, 15 ], Identifying source code,. Very well decoupled against a widelyaccepted list of software reuse the final score infer system properties where they do employ... Divided into three categories: Operational, Transitional, and procedures question is, is...

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